african origins of christianity

The early 4th century in Egypt began with renewed persecution under the Emperor Diocletian. When the persecution died down, however, some remained in the desert as hermits to pray. Although the ingredients of Christianity originated with Primitive Africans, its earliest recorded evidence of having begun in Africa comes out of Very Ancient African Spiritual Literature pertaining to Esoteric Knowledge. They were recognised as forming the Moroccan Church by Pope Innocent IV. The roots of Christianity in Africa extend back before the martyrs of 1 AD, but our knowledge of those earliest times is virtually non-existent. According to Darkwah (“Africans Who Wrote The Bible” p11), what Sir Higgins indirectly implied was that doctrines of the Ancient African Bible and original doctrines of the European Bible were both from Black People. In seeking to understand African Christianity, then, we need to understand its origins in the ancient church as well as the processes by which European missionaries and African converts of diverse religious hues have reinterpreted and reformed it to establish a … Once in North Africa, Christianity spread slowly West from Alexandria and East to Ethiopia. In addition many Christians also migrated to Europe. According to a 2006 Pew Forum on Religion and Public life study, 147 million African Christians were "renewalists" (Pentecostals and Charismatics). All of this was supported (1836) by the renowned British, Sir Godfrey Higgins. By the early 3rd Century, there was an important presence. 000704. Therefore, the Ethiopian church community in the Horn of Africa wasn't the product of European missionary work, rather, it had spread through missionaries much earlier (while the P'ent'ay churches are works of a Protestant reformation within Ethiopian Christianity). According to Paul Kollman, teaching from missionaries was up to the interpretation of each person and took different forms when acted upon. Only nine million Christians were in Africa in 1900, but by the year 2000, there were an estimated 380 million Christians. Importantly, today within most self-declared Christian communities in Africa, there is significant and sustained syncretism with African Traditional Religious beliefs and practices. Many Christians fled from the towns into the desert. Telling the African story. 4, 1985, pp. He said in “The Anaclypsis, or an Inquiry into the Origin of Languages, Nations, and Religions” that people of the [European] Bible were Black; and in all early Catholic Churches of Europe: “the God Christ, as well as his mother, are described in their old pictures to be Black [people]; Jesus Christ, a Negro; and the African Origin of the Myths and Legends of the Garden of Eden. Since the spread of Islam into North Africa, the size of Christian congregations as well as their number was reduced, so that of the original churches only the Eastern Orthodox Church of Alexandria and Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (which separated from each other during the Chalcedonian Schism) in Egypt and the Orthodox Tewahedo Church (that split into Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church) in the Horn of Africa remained. [4], The growth of Catholicism in the region after the French conquest was built on European colonizers and settlers, and these immigrants and their descendants mostly left when the countries of the region became independent. [12][13], Many causes have been seen as to leading to the decline of Christianity in the Maghreb. 60 million people are members of African-initiated churches. Although the ingredients of Christianity originated with Primitive Africans, its earliest recorded evidence of having begun in Africa comes out of Very Ancient African Spiritual Literature pertaining to Esoteric Knowledge. The influenza pandemic of 1918 accelerated the Africanization of Christianity and hence its growth in twentieth century Africa. Kollman, Paul. It will additionally examine Christianity in sub-Saharan Africa before 1800 including the Ethiopian Orthodox Church and Kongo Catholicism. Patterns, Shapes, and Forms are fundamental tools to help one see and give meaning to Real, Surreal, and Unreal Things. [3] The bishopric of Marrakesh continued to exist until the late 16th century. “Jesuits, Protestants, and Africa before the Twentieth Century.”, International Religious Freedom Report 2008, U.S Department of State. The Governance, Integrity and Anti-Corruption National Centre in the Prime. [26] A modest sized group of Jesuits began to establish their presence in the area of Abyssinia, or Ethiopia Superior, around the same time of Silveira's presence in Southern Africa. There is also evidence of religious pilgrimages after 850 to tombs of Catholic saints outside the city of Carthage, and evidence of religious contacts with Christians of Muslim Spain. “Classifying African Christianities: Past, Present, and Future: Part One.” Journal of Religion in Africa, vol. By this being derived from their Subjective and Objective Science implied they understood the core of fundamental inner most Principles in Physical, Metaphysical, and … The question is brief yet the answer takes days, weeks and even years to answer. 0:27. Christianity is now one of the two most widely practiced religions in Africa. [39] According to David Barrett, most of the 552,000 congregations in 11,500 denominations throughout Africa in 1995 are completely unknown in the West. David Adamo, a Nigerian within the Aladura church chose portions of the Bible that closely resembled what his church found important. Mazrui, Ali A. Dec 21, 2016 | Dr. Joseph A. Bailey II, MD., FACS. Here’s some important insights about the African origins of Christianity and racism by the great African minds – the Reverend Albert Cleage, John H. Clarke and Preston Wilcox. At the beginning of the 3rd century the church in Alexandria expanded rapidly, with five new suffragan bishoprics. The bible was then translated and communicated in these native languages. Missionary expeditions undertaken by the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) began as early as 1548 in various regions of Africa. [70] Most belong to the Latin Church, but there are also millions of members of the Eastern Catholic Churches. [2] The position of the head of the Catholic Church of Africa (Archdiocese of Carthage), the only one permitted to preach in the continent, belonged to the bishop of Morocco in 1246. The Church at that time lacked the backbone of a monastic tradition and was still suffering from the aftermath of heresies including the so-called Donatist heresy, and that this contributed to the early obliteration of the Church in the present day Maghreb. Unlike that of Islam, Christian missionaries were compelled to spread an understanding of their gospel in the native language of the indigenous people they sought to convert. So, Christianity first entered Africa along the Mediterranean and Red Seas, moving into Northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula by the late first or early second centuries CE. However, they were not in communion with the Catholic church. Other religious congregations did exist who sought to evangelize regions of the continent under Portuguese dominion, however, their influence was far less significant than that of the Christians. Important Africans who influenced the early development of Christianity include Tertullian, Perpetua, Felicity, Clement of Alexandria Dante Stewart. 13, Brill, LEIDEN; BOSTON, 2018, pp. Crosby Ezekiel. [29], In Morocco the expatriate Christian community (Roman Catholic and Protestant) consists of 5,000 practicing members, although estimates of Christians residing in the country at any particular time range up to 25,000. This contributed to growth of independent and prophetic Christian mass movements with prophecy, healings, and nationalist church restructuring. It is recorded that in 180 C.E. The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christian countries, and the Church with its various denominations, from the 1st century to the present.. Christianity originated with the ministry of Jesus, a Jewish teacher and healer who proclaimed the imminent kingdom of God and was crucified c. AD 30–33 in the 1st century Roman province of Judea. Taqa-na-ika origins of Fijians. The Office for Democracy, Human Rights and Labor in the United States also noted the presence of thousands of Tunisians who converted to Christianity .[32]. In these first few centuries, African Christian leaders such as Origen, Lactantius, Augustine, Tertullian, Marius Victorinus, Pachomius, Didymus the Blind, Ticonius, Cyprian, Athanasius and Cyril (along with rivals Valentinus, Plotinus, Arius and Donatus Magnus) influenced the Christian world outside Africa with responses to Gnosticism, Arianism, Montanism, Marcionism, Pelagianism and Manichaeism, and the idea of the University (after the Library of Alexandria), understanding of the Trinity, Vetus Latina translations, methods of exegesis and biblical interpretation, ecumenical councils, monasticism, Neoplatonism and African literary, dialectical and rhetorical traditions. Catholic Church membership rose from 2 million in 1900 to 140 million in 2000. The conflicting branches of secularism and religiosity within the Christian schools represents a divergence between the various goals of educational institutions within Africa.[38]. The story of early African-American Christianity proves the power of the Resurrection against oppression. 817–839. The earliest recording of this is from the “Prt m Hru": (epitaph)–a name for Humankind’s original Bible and dating to 60,000 BC (Seleem p 59, xiii). Mark the Evangelist made history in the year 43 when he became the first bishop to serve in the Orthodox Church of Alexandria. [69] In 2005, the Catholic Church in Africa, including Eastern Catholic Churches, was followed by approximately 135 million of the 809 million people in Africa. Hence, he continues: “the early Catholic Church knew, accepted, and acknowledged the Black ethnicity of the people of the Bible by portraying the God Christ and his mother as the Black People they originally were.” Gadalla reinforces this by saying “Ancient Egyptian texts reveal irrefutable proof that the entire body of [European] Christian doctrine is simply a revamped and mutilated Egyptianism; the early Christian [Catholic] church accepted these ancient truths as the very tenets of [their] Christianity, but disavowed their origins”. Jesuit missions functioned similarly in Mozambique and Angola until in 1759 the Society was overcome by Portuguese authority. As a result of the nature of Islam in Africa, Muslim missionaries were not prompted to translate their sacred text into the native language. C. J. Speel, II Some experts predict the shift of Christianity's center from the European industrialized nations to Africa and Asia in modern times. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/3557421. 1, 2010, pp. [8], Mark the Evangelist became the first bishop of the Orthodox Church of Alexandria in about the year 43. By the end of the 2nd century the scriptures and liturgy had been translated into three local languages. These were confirmed by God’s Word Revelations to Tehuti—the African Master of all the world’s Masters and Sages. Evolving into the Christ Apostolic Church, it gave rise to many offshoots, which continued to emerge into the 1950s spreading with migrants around the world. It started around the eastern Mediterranean region, ranging from roughly Greece through the Levant, and spread from there. Pacific Island oral tradition of their AFRICAN Origins. 29, No. Young leaders formed ideas based on Christianity and challenged elders. During the sixteenth century, Jesuits extended their occupation into the old Kongo Kingdom, developing upon a preexisting Catholic mission which had culminated in the construction of a local church. At this time, the Bishop of Alexandria began to be called Pope, as the senior bishop in Egypt. Important Africans who influenced the early development of Christianity include Tertullian, Perpetua, Felicity, Clement of Alexandria, Origen of Alexandria, Cyprian, Athanasius and Augustine of Hippo. African origins of christianity Our organisation represents the approximately 10lawyers who are practising in. During the first 5 centuries Christianity was growing rapidly and was introduced to Africans through Alexandria. A small Franciscan chapel and monastery in the mellah of the city existed until the 18th century. [40] Much of the recent Christian growth in Africa is now due to African evangelism and high birth rates, rather than European missionaries. 3–32., www.jstor.org/stable/20696840. Volume 1 of boyd's The African Origin Of Christianity is a Biblical and historical account of the origin of Christianity and is based on research and analysis conducted over a number of years. [9] At first the church in Alexandria was mainly Greek-speaking. [17] A Christian community is recorded in 1114 in Qal'a in central Algeria. The Coptic Christians make up a significant minority in Egypt. Christianity found its way to Sudan in the 1st century as well, and the region's Nubian churches had links to those in Egypt. The historical fact is that Christianity came to Africa before it came to Europe and North America. The African Origins Of Christianity - Part 3 - Anthony Browder. There are reports that the Roman Catholic faith persisted in the region from Tripolitania (present-day western Libya) to present-day Morocco for several centuries after the completion of the Arab conquest by 700. These contribute to understanding and the explaining of Principles (unchanging realities), Events (changing realities), Settings, Situations, and... “ME/WE” is an: "All for One, One for all" concept of African Zulus, called Ubuntu. Yale University historian Lamin Sanneh stated that "African Christianity was not just an exotic, curious phenomenon in an obscure part of the world, but that African Christianity might be the shape of things to come. They read portions of Psalms because of the idea that missionaries were not sharing the power of their faith. In the middle of the 3rd century the church in Egypt suffered severely in the persecution under the Emperor Decius. The history of the Christian religion and the Christian church began with Jesus and his apostles.Christianity is the religion that is based on the birth, life, death, resurrection and teaching of Jesus Christ. In 2009, when Pope Benedict XVI visited Africa, it was estimated at 158 million. http://dickinsg.intrasun.tcnj.edu/diaspora/part1/pwrpnt/Christianity [1] The Ethiopian church held its own distinct religious customs and a unique canon of the Bible. Some historians contrast this with the strong monastic tradition in Coptic Egypt, which is credited as a factor that allowed the Coptic Church to remain the majority faith in that country until around after the 14th century despite numerous persecutions. [14][15], Another view however that exists is that Christianity in North Africa ended soon after conquest of North Africa by the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate between AD 647–709 effectively.[16]. Simon Kimbangu became a martyr, put in a cage because of Western missionaries concern, and died there. European governments, churches and medicine were powerless against the plague, boosting anti-imperial sentiment. Church History, Vol. Mazrui, Ali A. Alexandria had a large Jewish community. Mirza Ghulam Ahmed, the founder of the Ahmadiyya sect, believed that the prophet Muhammed was the most important prophet, but not the last- departing from typical Muslim views. Adaptations of Protestantism, such as the Kimbanguist church emerged. 2 Professor Watson A. Polygamy was a topic of debate- many literate Africans interpreted it as acceptable because of information contained in the Old Testament- while it was condemned by European Christianity. 1, 2003, pp. with Krapf to establish Christianity in East Africa, hence laying the foundation on which subsequent efforts were to be built. Christianity in Africa arrived in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century. Mkenda, Festo. In the 4th century, the Aksumite empire in modern-day Eritrea and Ethiopia became one of the first regions in the world to adopt Christianity as an official religion and the Nubian kingdoms of Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia followed two centuries later. [18] The community of Tunisian Christians existed in the town of Tozeur up to the 18th century. 4 (December, 1960), pp. A statement from this “Book of Life” says: righteousness leads to spiritual realization; purification is acting with righteousness; and by learning about the nature of the Divine—acting, feeling, and thinking as the Divine—it is finally possible to become one with the Divine. Colonial Christianity also brought to Africa the concept of the Victorian woman: a woman who should stay in the private domain and leave the “real work” to the men. For example, St. Augustine (354-430) of Hippo (Algeria), who was quite familiar with Tehuti’s works, said: “That which is called Christian religion existed among the ancients [i.e. The churches there were linked to the Church of Rome and provided Pope Gelasius I, Pope Miltiades and Pope Victor I, all of them Christian Berbers like Saint Augustine and his mother Saint Monica. A conversation between Christian History and Thomas Oden of the Center for Early African Christianity on how Africa formed early Christian teaching. European missionaries were faced with what they considered an issue in maintaining Victorian values, while still promoting the vernacular and literacy. [28] In that wilaya, the proportion of Christians has been estimated to be between 1% and 5%. The Kimbanguist church believed Jesus was black and regarded symbols with different weight than the Catholic and Protestant Europeans. 0. He thanked the Caliph al-Sa'id for granting protection to the Christians and requested to allow them to create fortresses along the shores, but the Caliph rejected this request. As of 2020, Christians formed 49% of the continent's population, with Muslims forming 42%. 379-397, Mkenda, Festo. This book makes clear the subject about which Greenberg writes. Within African communities, there were clashes brought on by Christianization. [37] As many as five million Africans are estimated to have died. These movements took place around 1980, resulting in violent behavior and clashes with police. there was sustained missionary activity by Churches of every denomination. Christianity in East Africa owes an immense debt to this trio of German Lutherans: Krapf, Rebmann, and Erhardt, all working under the CMS. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.1163/j.ctvbqs62t.4. The Jesuits went largely unchallenged by rival denominational missions in Africa. There was a militarism developed in different groups and movements like the Ahmadiyyas and the Mahdist movement and clashes between groups with opposing views. There were clashes between people who accepted the de-Arabization and those who did not. The African Origins of Christmas - Real News. Humans who achieved a spirituality-realized state were given the title "Ausar" (the God-Self dwelling in Humans). It has a constituency of more than two billion believers. In addition, the Romans and the Byzantines were unable to completely assimilate the indigenous people like the Berbers. Africans], and never did not exist, from the beginning of the human race until Christ came in the flesh, at which time the true religion which already existed began to be called Christianity” (Freke, Hermetica p20). Christianity in Africa shows tremendous variety, from the ancient forms of Oriental Orthodox Christianity in Egypt, Ethiopia, and Eritrea to the newest African-Christian denominations of Nigeria, a country that has experienced large conversion to Christianity in recent times. The African Origins of Western Civilization, Religion, and Ethics Philosophy - Kindle edition by Ashby, Muata. Dona Beatriz was a woman from Central Africa known for her controversial views on the acceptance of polygamy- she argued that Jesus never condemned it- and she was burnt at the stake. Several syncretistic and messianic sections have formed throughout much of the continent, including the Nazareth Baptist Church in South Africa and the Aladura churches in Nigeria. "[41] The statistics from the World Christian Encyclopedia (David Barrett) illustrate the emerging trend of dramatic Christian growth on the continent and supposes, that in 2025 there will be 633 million Christians in Africa. 9:31. By Andile Mngxitama. [23], Another phase of Christianity in Africa began with the arrival of Portuguese in the 15th century. His reasoning was that since Jesus was Black and his people wrote his story, then the people that conceived and wrote this story must also be Black. Since 2013, traditional African religions are declared as the majority religion only in Togo. However, new scholarship has appeared that disputes this. What we do know, however, is that Christianity spread quickly through the North African provinces of the Roman Empire. [33][34] Members within these churches looked for practices in the Bible that were not overtly condemned, such as polygamy. The consonants of the name Christ are HRST, which means HeRu (Horus) and Son of ST (auST/Isis). Designed by Elegant Themes | Powered by WordPress, MATHEMATICS OF AFRICAN TRADITION FOR BLACK YOUTH (5), ***AFRICAN UBUNTU IS SPIRITUAL “ME/WE” (1). 1452384000. [3], The medieval Moroccan historian Ibn Abi Zar stated that the Almohad caliph Abu al-Ala Idris al-Ma'mun had built a church in Marrakech for the Christians to freely practice their faith at Fernando III's insistence. The Jesuits found themselves expelled from Mozambique and Angola, as a result, the existence of Catholic missions diminished significantly in these regions. [42], A 2015 study estimates 2,161,000 Christian believers are from a formerly Muslim background in Africa, most of them belonging to some form of Protestantism.[43]. Christianity in Sudan also spread in the early 1st century, and the Nubian churches, which were established in the sixth century within the kingdoms of Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia were linked to those of Egypt.[10]. Let’s continue to educate each other. Kemetic / Egyptian Origin of Christianity Gerald Massey's comparative list of Kemetic / Egyptian (pre-Christian) religious-philosophical data, Christianized in the Canonical Gospels and the Book of Revelation. Africa was central to the demographic and theological evolution of early Christianity, despite its eclipse from most of Northern Africa in subsequent centuries. A letter in Catholic Church archives from the 14th century shows that there were still four bishoprics left in North Africa, admittedly a sharp decline from the over four hundred bishoprics in existence at the time of the Arab conquest. In 1561, Gonçalo da Silveira, a Portuguese missionary, managed to baptize Monomotapa, king of the Shona people in the territory of Zimbabwe. [24] After the end of Reconquista, the Christian Portuguese and Spanish captured many ports in North Africa.[25]. 297–306. This plagiarizing of the Egyptian religion was noted by several brave European writers, including the world renowned British Egyptologist, Sir E. A. Wallis Budge. One questions that always arise is: "If Kemet / Egypt was so great what happened?" 9:56. In the 4th century, the Aksumite empire in modern-day Eritrea and Ethiopia became one of the first regions in the world to adopt Christianity as an official religion and the Nubian kingdoms of Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia followed two centuries later. In addition, calendar reforms adopted in Europe at this time were disseminated amongst the indigenous Christians of Tunis, which would have not been possible had there been an absence of contact with Rome. Since the Greeks could not pronounce the letter H, they substituted its sound with the letters Ch. [5] In a relatively short time, Africa has gone from having a majority of followers of indigenous, traditional religions, to being predominantly a continent of Christians and Muslims. “Religion and Political Culture in Africa.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion, vol. Despite this confrontation, they found success in instituting Catholic doctrine in a region that, prior to the existence of their vocation, maintained strictly established orthodoxies. This is an authorized video, produced and selected by Ashra Kwesi and his company, Kemet Nu Productions for online viewing. [131], After the Muslim conquest of Eastern Roman North Africa, The Disappearance of Christianity from North Africa in the Wake of the Rise of Islam Reclaiming African religious precedence / Amon Saba Saakana -- Moses / Yosef Ben-Jochannan -- The Kamitic genesis of Christianity / Charles S. Finch -- The spirits that rule. Although Jesuits regularly confronted persecution and harassment, their mission withstood the test of time for nearly a century. 1816. As of the last census in Algeria, taken on 1 June 1960, there were 1,050,000 non-Muslim civilians (mostly Catholic) in Algeria (10 percent of the total population including 140,000 Algerian Jews). Christianity and Africa's traditional religions. Colonial Christianity also brought to Africa the concept of the Victorian woman: a woman who should stay in the private domain and leave the “real work” to the men. Some evangelical missions founded in Africa such as the UD-OLGC, founded by Evangelist Dag Heward-Mills, are also quickly spreading in influence all around the world. The first Europeans arrived on the coast of W. Africa at the end of the 15th cent., but for the most part they were involved in the slave trade rather than in evangelization. 40, no. The Catholic church gradually declined along with local Latin dialect. Many of the converts are baptized secretly in Morocco's churches. 53, no. There are reports of Christian inhabitants and a bishop in the city of Kairouan around 1150 AD - a significant event, since this city was founded by Arab Muslims around 680 AD as their administrative center after their conquest. Juan de Prado who had attempted to re-establish the mission was killed in 1631. They found power in reading these verses and put them into the context of their lives. 29, no. In Nigeria, movements were created to arouse Muslims to de-Arabize Islam. Missiologists have worked more broadly on a correlation of Christianity with African culture as a whole, speaking in terms of an ethnotheology. By the end of the 2nd century it had reached the region around Carthage. African Origins of the Word God (March 27, 2011) By Asar Imhotep The MOCHA-Versity Institute of Philosophy and Research luntu/lumtu/muntu The names of nearly all the gods came from Egypt. Christians and Muslims built schools throughout the continent of Africa, teaching missionary beliefs and philosophies. Christians has been tremendous growth in twentieth century Africa. [ 25 ] International religious Report! Symbols with different weight than the Catholic church membership rose from 2 million in 1900 to million! 43 when he became the first bishop to serve in the middle of the 1st century Masters and.! In communion with the letters Ch called Pope, as the majority Religion only in Togo “ Religion Political! Inception of the 1st century is not a recent arrival in Africa, Christianity spread quickly the. Two most widely practiced religions in Africa - coupled by a relative decline in adherence to traditional religions... Anti-Imperial sentiment of Religion, 144 pages and East to Ethiopia Byzantines unable... That disputes this african origins of christianity issue in maintaining Victorian values, while still promoting the vernacular and literacy LEIDEN BOSTON. 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